How to stay safe while having fun this Halloween

Halloween is a favorite fall celebration in the United States and elsewhere in the world. This year, however, the COVID-19 pandemic poses some challenges for enthusiasts of this holiday. How can you have fun and still stay safe this Halloween?

Halloween is the time of the year when many fall enthusiasts drink pumpkin spice lattes, watch favorite horror flicks, and go trick-or-treating. Every year, people around the U.S. and the world throw costume parties to celebrate this holiday, taking the opportunity to spend some quality time with friends and family.

This year, however, the COVID-19 pandemic has made celebrating Halloween more complicated, as social gatherings can facilitate the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes the disease.

Despite this, some data suggest that many people in the U.S. have not let the pandemic deter them from their yearly Halloween preparations.

According to a Statista projection from September 2021, planned nationwide expenses for Halloween costumes amount to $3.3 billion. Estimates also indicate another $3.2 billion on Halloween decorations and $3 billion on candy.

So how can people stay safe while still enjoying this favorite fall holiday? In this Special Feature, we look at some best practices and offer tips for health, safety, and fun.

We have based our suggestions on official guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Article highlights:

Handling and offering treats

Trick-or-treating and costume parties may be the best-loved Halloween activities, but they typically involve close contact with many people from different households. This can facilitate the transmission of the coronavirus.

For example, if someone who has unknowingly contracted SARS-CoV and has not experienced any symptoms engages in regular social activities, they might be putting others at risk.

The first and most important step to protect yourself and others against COVID-19 is by getting vaccinated, and the CDC advises everyone who is able to receive a COVID-19 vaccine to do so.

The best way to stay safe this Halloween is to avoid contact with people from other households, which might mean avoiding trick-or-treating and attending parties with individuals you do not share a living space with.

However, there are some ways people who want to make the most of this fall festivity can mitigate the risks.

If children go treat-or-tricking, they must avoid coming into direct contact with other treat-or-trickers or with any adults offering them treats.

They must also try to keep at least 6 feet away from other children and adults who do not live with them and carry hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol content to use frequently.

Adults may want to supervise children as they use hand sanitizer and use it frequently themselves.

Additionally, always wash hands before and after handling any treats or treat bags destined for children from other households.

Children must also wash their hands thoroughly before they eat any candy received while treat-or-tricking.

Costumes and face coverings

One of the most important aspects of Halloween is, of course, wearing costumes.

Both adults and children may want to incorporate a face covering — covering the nose and mouth — into their outfit during any treat-or-tricking activities or any other activities where they might encounter people who do not form part of their household, particularly in areas where the risk of viral transmission remains high.

Healthline’s former chief medical officer, Dr. Hanh Le, advises that: “For this Halloween, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, costumes that have a mask that covers the mouth and nose area are likely the safest, and costumes that are either disposable or washable will most likely decrease your risk of contamination in the future.”

However, a regular costume mask may not provide the necessary protection against the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, so it is best to follow CDC guidelines on choosing an appropriate mask.

You may also want to avoid wearing a cloth face covering under a costume mask, because it could get in the way of breathing freely.

Organizing or attending festivities

The safest way to celebrate this Halloween is with people from your own household.

Pumpkin carving, wearing fun costumes, and participating in traditional Halloween games can be just as fun in smaller, more intimate circles as they are in larger social gatherings.

However, for those choosing to celebrate with individuals outside their households, here is some advice on staying safe and minimizing the risk of transmitting the virus.

According to medical experts, one way of minimizing transmission during a social gathering is by holding it in an outdoor space.

Dr. Hanh Le explains why:

“When organizing Halloween get-togethers, it is advisable to plan them outdoors if possible, because [spacing] people out in an open outdoor setting is the best way to prevent person-to-person transmission. Gathering a lot of people together in small confined spaces — especially if it’s loud and people [need] to lean in to hear each other — is a recipe for disaster for widespread [SARS-CoV-2] transmission among all your guests.”

Additionally, make sure to ventilate any indoor spaces used during a holiday gathering.

Hosts who wish to organize a get-together should limit the number of guests and ensure that everyone is familiar with and willing to follow current safety guidelines.

Some hosts may choose to provide disposable face masks, hand sanitizer, and tissues to their guests if they cannot bring their own.

For extra safety, you may want to place tables and chairs to allow for physical distancing between guests from different households. When it comes to cutlery, plates, and drinking cups, using disposable ones may be the safest option.

Providing individual sachets or pots of sauce, condiments, and salad dressings is also safer than passing around one container that everyone will handle.

Some hosts may suggest that guests bring their own food and drink to avoid sharing with others. Where this is not possible, limit contact with shared items or surfaces.

If people from different households cannot keep at least 6 feet apart from others, they should wear face coverings.

Hosts and guests alike must remember to wash their hands thoroughly before handling shared items or serving or eating food.

Finally, and most importantly, if you feel unwell or think you may have had exposure to a virus, please avoid all social gatherings to keep your friends and family safe.

Safe Halloween 2020 during the Covid-19 pandemc. Halloween pumpkins with face mask

Cardiovascular health most important to reduce diabetes risk

  • A recent study investigated the effects of good cardiovascular health (CVH) in preventing type 2 diabetes (T2D) among middle-aged individuals.
  • The results suggest that middle-aged adults with a healthy heart have a reduced risk of developing T2D.
  • The study also notes that regardless of genetic predisposition, favorable CVH reduces the risk of developing T2D among middle-aged individuals.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source estimate that more than 34 million people in the United States live with diabetes and that approximately 90–95% of these individuals have T2D.

T2D is characterized by peripheral resistance to insulin. This means that tissues such as the gut, liver, and muscles fail to respond to messages from insulin to take up glucose from the bloodstream.

It also means that the liver, which not only absorbs glucose but also produces it, does not respond to insulin to stop this production. In the early stages, the pancreas secretes additional insulin to overcome the problem, but this corrective process can eventually fail.

Insulin is a hormone that the pancreas produces. It regulates the transport of glucose into the cells of the body, where it serves as a source of energy. Blood glucose levels that remain too high for long periods can damage various organs and systems of the body.

Previous research has shown that multiple factors — both genetic and nongenetic — combine to increase a person’s risk of developing T2D. However, there is also evidence showing that people can significantly reduce this risk by adopting certain lifestyle measures.

Recently, scientists in the Netherlands embarked on a study to evaluate whether a favorable CVH score reduces the lifetime risk of developing T2D. They looked at middle-aged individuals with and without a genetic predisposition to T2D.

The results appear in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.

Measuring cardiovascular health

Lead study author Dr. Fariba Ahmadizar, Ph.D., a professor at the Erasmus University Medical Center in the Netherlands, explained the motivation behind the study to Medical News Today:

“Previous studies have shown that cardiovascular risk factors are largely associated with the risk for T2D.”

“However, data on the lifetime risk of incident T2D across different CVH categories was scarce,” she added. “More importantly, the impact of genetic predisposition on the lifetime risk of incident T2D associated with CVH was unknown, [so] this prompted our research into cardiovascular health, genetic predisposition, and lifetime risk of T2D.”

The new study included 5,993 participants without T2D at the start of the study. Data came from the Rotterdam Study — a prospective cohort study of a community-dwelling population aged 55 years and older in Rotterdam.

The average age of the participants was 69 years, and 58% were women. The study participants received CVH scores based on a range of parameters that the scientists measured at baseline. These included body mass index (BMI), smoking behavior, blood pressure, total cholesterol, physical activity, and diet.

The researchers summed up these parameters to create a CVH score between 0 and 12, with higher scores indicating better CVH. Based on the CVH score, they divided the participants into three groups: poor, intermediate, and ideal.

In addition, the team calculated biological CVH, which comprised blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking.

Each participant also received a behavioral CVH score, which took into account BMI, smoking, diet, and physical activity.

In assessing genetic predisposition to T2D, the researchers used 403 independent genetic variants associated with the disease to generate a genetic risk score. They used this score to classify the participants as having a low, intermediate, or high genetic risk.

Analyzing the study results

The researchers noted that at 55 years, the lifetime risk of developing T2D varied by CVH score:

  • ideal: 22.6%
  • intermediate: 28.3%
  • poor: 32.6%

When they accounted for genetic risk, the researchers observed that among those in the high genetic risk group, the lifetime risk of T2D was 23.5%, 33.7%, and 38.7% for the ideal, intermediate, and poor CVH groups, respectively.

In comparison with the poor and intermediate CVH groups, the ideal CVH group still had the lowest lifetime risk for T2D, although this pertained to those with an intermediate or low genetic risk.

The scientists also assessed the lifetime risk of T2D using behavioral and biological scores. They noted that for both the behavioral and biological assessments, the risk was lower in the ideal CVH groups than in the poor and intermediate groups.

These findings led the researchers to conclude that, regardless of genetic predisposition, favorable CVH health is most important in preventing T2D among middle-aged individuals.

This conclusion is similar to the sentiments that Dr. Francesca Cortese — a cardiologist in Bari University General Hospital, Italy — has shared. Dr. Cortese says:

“Through very simple tools, such as education for a correct lifestyle, we can significantly contribute to the prevention of T2D and its complications.”

Study limitations and controversy

The authors acknowledge that the study had limitations. Firstly, the team obtained individual CVH parameters at baseline, which was 20–27 years earlier. This could have led to misclassification of the participants across the different categories in the intervening time.

Secondly, some results from the genetic groups were based on relatively small sample sizes, which means that further information may be required.

Lastly, most of the participants were of European ancestry, limiting the generalizability of the results to other populations.

Also, in a potentially contentious twist, the scientists noted that participants decreased their lifetime T2D risk further by adhering to an ideal behavioral CVH rather than an ideal biological CVH. One of the components in the behavioral score was BMI.

As the authors explain, “This is controversial because it may suggest that obesity is a choice.” However, other research underlining the multifactorial nature of obesity concludes that people should consider obesity a health metric just as they would blood pressure or T2D.

Regardless of the study’s limitations and controversy, it has opened up interesting possibilities on which future studies can build.

Doctor using a stethoscope checking patient with examining, presenting results symptom and recommend treatment method, Healthcare and medical concept.

Medical Myths: 15 breast cancer misconceptions

In 2020, 685,000 people died from breast cancer, and 2.3 million received a diagnosis. It reported:

“As of the end of 2020, there were 7.8 million women alive who were diagnosed with breast cancer in the past 5 years, making it the world’s most prevalent cancer.”

Its prevalence might help explain why there is a wide range of myths attached to it. Here, we will tackle 15 of the most common misunderstandings.

To help us reach the truth, we enlisted the help of three experts:

  • Dr. Michael Zeidman: an assistant professor of breast surgery at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City.
  • Dr. Crystal Fancher: a surgical breast oncologist at the Margie Petersen Breast Center at Providence Saint John’s Health Center and assistant professor of surgery at the Saint John’s Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, CA.
  • Dr. Richard Reitherman, Ph.D.: the medical director of breast imaging at MemorialCare Breast Center at Orange Coast Medical Center in Fountain Valley, CA.

1. A breast injury can cause breast cancer

“Injury to the breast cannot cause breast cancer,” explained Dr. Zeidman, “however, it can cause changes in the breast that may mimic breast cancer on imaging.”

“This process is called ‘fat necrosis,” he continued, “and it can look like an irregular mass with jagged edges on a mammogram, much like the appearance of a new breast cancer. The best way to distinguish cancer from fat necrosis is with a needle biopsy.”

2. Underwire bras increase the risk of breast cancer

Although underwire bras do not increase breast cancer risk, Dr. Zeidman always recommends bras without a wire. He explains:

“The wire can irritate the skin under the breast, which can lead to skin breakdown. This breakdown may allow bacteria to enter the breast causing infection, [an] abscess, [or both].”

3. IVF increases the risk of breast cancer

As part of the in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure, doctors often prescribe drugs that stimulate the ovaries to produce eggs. These drugs mimic the activity of estrogen.

Because of this, some experts wondered whether they might encourage the growth of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. As the name suggests, these cancer cells have estrogen receptors on their membranes.

“While there are no randomized controlled trials looking to answer this question,” explained Dr. Zeidman, “a recent meta-analysis of all observational studies over the past 30 years concluded that there is no increase in breast cancer risk for women who received ovarian stimulation drugs compared with the general population.”

4. No one in my family had breast cancer, so I won’t develop it

This is a myth that Dr. Zeidman is familiar with, he told Medical News Today: “It is very common for [people] with a new breast cancer diagnosis to tell me how shocked they are considering that they have no family history.”

“I then respond by stating that the vast majority of [people who] I see with a new breast cancer have no risk factors. In fact, the most significant risk factor for developing breast cancer is being a woman. In the United States, 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer over their lifetime.”

As Dr. Fancher explained to us, “only about 5–10% of breast cancers are caused by a genetic mutation that is passed between family members. This means that the majority of breast cancers are sporadic or have no hereditary cause.”

Because family history is only one factor in the risk of breast cancer, screening is important. As Dr. Reitherman explained:

“The message is that every woman starting at 40 years of age should have a yearly mammogram regardless of a family history of breast cancer. Those women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer should be evaluated by a genetics counselor by the age of 30. This group of women may need to begin breast cancer screening prior to the age of 40.”

Dr. Zeidman takes the opportunity to stress the importance of checkups:

“If you are a woman and at least 40 years old, please get your screening mammograms!”

5. Being stressed can cause breast cancer

With the ever-present stresses of modern life, it is no surprise that people are concerned about how stress might impact health.

However, as Dr. Zeidman told us, “There is absolutely no evidence to support a link between stress and breast cancer. In fact, there is evidence to support that stress does not increase breast cancer risk.”

That is not to say that stress cannot impact health at all, however. He goes on: “Part of being human is finding effective ways to deal with the stress we all will inevitably face. This can have profound health benefits both mentally and physically, but will do nothing to mitigate breast cancer risk.”

6. A healthy lifestyle eliminates breast cancer risk

“While it is true that postmenopausal women who are overweight are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer, there is nothing that a woman can do to eliminate breast cancer risk,” explained Dr. Zeidman.

“Even women who undergo bilateral mastectomy are still at risk of developing a new breast cancer.”

However, he is not suggesting anyone starts “smoking and eating fast food every day.”

More generally, he believes that “it is of the utmost importance to take care of your body because you only get one. But even world class athletes have been diagnosed with breast cancer.”

7. Breast cancer only happens to older adults

“While it is true that breast cancer risk increases as women age, and the average age of a new breast cancer diagnosis is 61 years, breast cancer can occur much earlier,” Dr. Zeidman told MNT.

“About 5% of new breast cancer diagnoses are in women under the age of 40 years. There, unfortunately, have been reports of women in their early 20s and even teens who were diagnosed. There is typically a strong family history in these young women.”

“If you have a significant lifetime breast cancer risk based on a strong family history, then you may qualify for genetic testing and early screening starting at age 25.”

Dr. Fancher explains that, although breast cancer is rarer in younger people, she encourages people to “bring any concerning findings in your breast to your doctor’s attention and follow their recommended screening guidelines.”

8. All lumps in the breast signal breast cancer

This is a myth — not all lumps in the breast are cancer. Dr. Zeidman explained that the majority

“of new breast lumps are benign. And, if you had a recent mammogram that was normal, then that percentage is likely even higher.”

However, Dr. Zeidman made it clear that any new lump should be “evaluated by a healthcare professional.”

9. Having an abortion increases the risk of breast cancer

“The reason this question comes up is because we know that breast cancer risk is directly related to estrogen exposure,” Dr. Zeidman told us, “and abortion interrupts the normal hormonal cycle of pregnancy.”

“While we can never perform a randomized controlled trial to address this question, there was a very large observational study

in Denmark that included 1.5 million women and found no link between abortion and breast cancer.”

Aside from this analysis, he explained that there have also “been several other large-scale studies that came to the same conclusion.”

10. Carrying a phone in your bra can cause cancer

According to Dr. Zeidman: “There is no evidence to support that cell phones cause cancer, period.”

“However, we do not have any long-term studies, so we may find this to be the case in the future. For now, why can’t you just put your phone in your pocket or bag?”

11. Nipple piercings increase breast cancer risk

Dr. Zeidman told MNT that this is a myth — nipple piercings do not increase breast cancer risk.

“However,” he elaborated, “they can lead to complications, such as infection, abscess, difficulty breastfeeding due to blocked ducts from scar tissue, nerve damage, keloids, cysts, and more rare but serious illness from HIV and hepatitis B and C.”

“For these reasons,” he said, “I always recommend against nipple piercing. If the deed is done, I recommend removing it.”

12. Sugar causes breast cancer

Dr. Zeidman maintains a firm stance on sugar: “Sugar should be avoided in general. It is addictive.”

“It can cause mood swings,” he continued, “It leads to spikes in insulin, which puts the body in a pro-inflammatory state. This, in turn, can lead to heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic inflammatory diseases.”

“Too much sugar can result in obesity, which is a risk factor for breast cancer.”

However, he explained that studies investigating links between sugar and breast cancer have been “mixed and inconsistent.”

While discussing sugar, it is worth busting a related myth: that sugar helps tumors grow. This myth arose because cancer cells divide rapidly and, therefore, need a lot of energy.

“While there is no concrete evidence to support this,” stated Dr. Zeidman, “I still recommend abstaining from added sugar as much as possible for overall well-being.”

13. Men do not get breast cancer

“Men have breasts… so yes, they too get breast cancer,” said Dr. Zeidman. “In fact, 1%

of all breast cancer diagnoses in the U.S. are in men.”

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there were 2,300 new cases of male breast cancer in 2017 and 500 deaths.

“While breast cancer is more common in women than men, there are still men who get breast cancer,” explained Dr. Fancher, “It’s important for men also to be aware of any changes in their breast since there are no recommended screening guidelines for men.”

“Any lump, pain, or changes should be brought to your doctor’s attention, even if you don’t have a strong family history.”
– Dr. Fancher

Dr. Reitherman added, “Men are diagnosed with breast cancer rarely the most common risk factor is a family history of breast cancer. The BRCA2

genetic mutation markedly increased the risk of breast cancer in males who carry this gene.”

14. Mammograms cause breast cancer to spread

“This is a common misconception that I hear from my patients,” Dr. Zeidman told us.

“The thinking is that squeezing the cancer with compression during mammography, or performing a needle biopsy on the cancer, will cause the cancer to seed other parts of the breast.” However, he confirms:

“There is absolutely no evidence to support this.”

Dr. Reitherman agrees: “There is absolutely no evidence that mammograms cause breast cancer. The performance of a mammogram uses a very low dose of radiation and compression and has no documented or theoretical relationship to causing breast cancer.”

15. If there is no lump, there is no cancer

“If this were true, then we would not need mammograms,” said Dr. Zeidman. “Mammograms have been proven to save lives because they allow us to catch the cancer before it becomes palpable,”

In this context, “palpable” means that a person can feel the lump with their fingers.

“If we diagnose and treat a breast cancer while it is stage 1, survival approaches 100%. Survival drops as the stage advances. In fact, the cancer may never be palpable and still spread to other parts of the body,” Dr. Zeidman added.

According to Dr. Fancher, “Many breast cancers are found on screening mammograms and may not be felt. This is especially true for noninvasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ, which may only show up as calcifications on a screening mammogram.”

The take-home

Breast cancer is common, and while a healthy lifestyle might reduce the risk to a certain extent, vigilance is key. The earlier a doctor catches breast cancer, the higher the chances of surviving it.

Women Breast Cancer Support Charity Concept

What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. It happens when blood sugar levels rise due to problems with the use or production of insulin.

It can appear at any age, but it is more likely to occur after the age of 45 years.

It affects over 30 million Americans, according to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and it accounts for 90–95 percent of diabetes cases.

This article looks at the early signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes, the risk factors, and potential complications.

What is type 2 diabetes?

People with type 2 diabetes do not make or use insulin correctly.

Insulin is a hormone that regulates the movement of blood glucose, or sugar, into cells, which use it as energy.

When sugar cannot enter cells, this means:

  • too much glucose collects in the blood
  • the body’s cells cannot use it for energy

A doctor may diagnose diabetes if a person’s blood sugar levels are 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) or above after fasting for 8 hours.


The symptoms of high blood sugar in type 2 diabetes tend to appear gradually. Not everyone with type 2 diabetes will notice symptoms in the early stages.

If a person does experience symptoms, they may notice the following:

  • Frequent urination and increased thirst: When excess glucose builds up in the bloodstream, the body will extract fluid from tissues. This can lead to excessive thirst and the need to drink and urinate more.
  • Increased hunger: In type 2 diabetes, the cells are not able to access glucose for energy. The muscles and organs will be low on energy, and the person may feel more hungry than usual.
  • Weight loss: When there is too little insulin, the body may start burning fat and muscle for energy. This causes weight loss.
  • Fatigue: When cells lack glucose, the body becomes tired. Fatigue can interfere with daily life when a person has type 2 diabetes.
  • Blurred vision: High blood glucose can cause fluid to be pulled from the lenses of the eyes, resulting in swelling, leading to temporarily blurred vision.
  • Infections and sores: It takes longer to recover from infections and sores because blood circulation is poor and there may be other nutritional deficits.

If people notice these symptoms, they should see a doctor. Diabetes can lead to a number of serious complications. The sooner a person starts to manage their glucose levels, the better chance they have of preventing complications.

Symptoms in children and teens

Type 2 diabetes is more likely to appear after the age of 45 years, but it can affect children and teens who:

  • have excess weight
  • do not do much physical activity
  • have high blood pressure
  • have a family history of type 2 diabetes
  • have an African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, or American Indian background

The following symptoms may occur:

  • weight loss, despite increased appetite and hunger
  • extreme thirst and dry mouth
  • frequent urination and urinary tract infections
  • fatigue
  • blurred vision
  • slow healing of cuts or wounds
  • numbness or tingling in hands and feet
  • itchy skin

If caregivers notice these symptoms, they should take the child to see a doctor. These are also symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 is less common but more likely to affect children and teenagers than adults. However, type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in young people than it was in the past.

Symptoms in older adults

At least 25.2 percent of people aged 65 and above have type 2 diabetes in the United States. They may have some or all the classic symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

They may also experience one or more of the following:

  • flu-like fatigue, which includes feeling lethargic and chronically weak
  • urinary tract infections
  • numbness and tingling in the hands, arms, legs, and feet due to circulation and nerve damage
  • dental problems, including infections of the mouth and red, inflamed gums
Obesity and diabetes infographic, detail of health care concept of obesity and diabetes. vector illustration.