Food Poisoning Symptoms

Food poisoning symptoms can be anywhere from mild to very serious. Your symptoms may be different depending on the germ you swallowed. The most common symptoms of food poisoning are:

  • Upset stomach
  • Stomach cramps
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever

After you swallow an unsafe (contaminated) food or drink, it may take hours or days to develop symptoms. If you have symptoms of food poisoning, such as diarrhea or vomiting, drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration (not having enough water in your body).

When to See a Doctor for Food Poisoning

See your doctor or healthcare provider if you have symptoms that are severe, including:

  • Bloody diarrhea
  • High fever (temperature over 102°F, measured in your mouth)
  • Frequent vomiting that prevents keeping liquids down (which can lead to dehydration)
  • Signs of dehydration, including little or no urination, a very dry mouth and throat, or feeling dizzy when standing up
  • Diarrhea that lasts more than 3 days

Serious Health Problems and Long-Term Effects From Food Poisoning

Most people have only mild illnesses, lasting a few hours to several days. However, some people need to be hospitalized, and some illnesses cause long-term health problems or even death. Infections spread by food can lead to:

  • Chronic arthritis
  • Brain and nerve damage
  • Kidney failure caused by hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)

Symptoms and Sources of Common Food Poisoning Germs

Some germs make you sick within a few hours after you swallow them. Others may take a few days to make you sick. This list provides the symptoms, when symptoms begin, and common food sources for germs that cause food poisoning. The germs are listed in order of how quickly symptoms begin.

Staphylococcus aureus (Staph)

  • Symptoms begin 30 minutes to 8 hours after exposure: Nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps. Most people also have diarrhea. Common food sources: Foods that are not cooked after handling, such as sliced meats, puddings, pastries, and sandwiches


  • Symptoms begin 2 to 48 hours after exposure: Watery diarrhea, nausea, stomach cramps, vomiting, fever, chills Common food sources: Raw or undercooked shellfish, particularly oysters

Clostridium perfringens

  • Symptoms begin 6 to 24 hours after exposure: Diarrhea, stomach cramps. Usually begins suddenly and lasts for less than 24 hours. Vomiting and fever are not common. Common food sources: Beef or poultry, especially large roasts; gravies; dried or precooked foods



  • Symptoms begin 12 to 48 hours after exposure: Diarrhea, nausea/stomach pain, vomiting Common food sources: Leafy greens, fresh fruits, shellfish (such as oysters), or unsafe water
  • Other sources: Infected person; touching surfaces that have the virus on them

Clostridium botulinum (Botulism)

  • Symptoms begin 18 to 36 hours after exposure: Double or blurred vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech. Difficulty swallowing and breathing, dry mouth. Muscle weakness and paralysis. Symptoms start in the head and move down as the illness gets worse. Common food sources: Improperly canned or fermented foods, usually homemade. Prison-made illicit alcohol (pruno).


E. coli (Escherichia coli)

  • Symptoms begin 3 to 4 days after exposure: Severe stomach cramps, diarrhea (often bloody), and vomiting. Around 5­­–10% of people diagnosed with E. coli develop a life-threatening health problem. Common food sources: Raw or undercooked ground beef, raw (unpasteurized) milk and juice, raw vegetables (such as lettuce), raw sprouts, unsafe water


  • Symptoms begin 1 week after exposure: Watery diarrhea, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Stomach cramps/pain, bloating, increased gas, nausea, and fatigue. Common food sources: Raw fruits or vegetables and herbs


Everything you need to know about plant based diets

A plant based diet is one that focuses on only or mostly foods from plant sources. This way of eating may have benefits for both a person’s health and the planet.

In this article, we look at what a plant based diet is, the health benefits, and what nutritional considerations a person should make before switching.

What is a plant based diet?

Many people interpret a plant based diet as avoiding all animal products.

A plant based diet is a diet that involves consuming mostly or only on foods that come from plants. People understand and use the term plant based diet in different ways.

Some people interpret it as a vegan diet, which involves avoiding all animal products.

For others, a plant based diet means that plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and legumes, are the main focus of their diet, but they may, occasionally, consume meat, fish, or dairy products.

A plant based diet also focuses on healthful whole foods, rather than processed foods.

Health benefits

Following a plant based diet offers many possible health benefits, including:

Better weight management

Research suggests that people who eat primarily plant based diets tend to have a lower body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease than those who eat meat.

Plant based diets are high in fiber, complex carbohydrates, and water content from fruit and vegetables. This may help to keep people feeling fuller for longer and increase energy use when resting.

A 2018 study found that a plant based diet was effective for treating obesity. In the study, researchers assigned 75 people who were overweight or had obesity to either a vegan diet or a continuation of their regular diet, which contained meat.

After 4 months, only the vegan group showed a significant weight loss of 6.5 kilograms (14.33 pounds). The plant based vegan group also lost more fat mass and saw improvements in insulin sensitivity, whereas those who consumed a regular diet with meat did not.

A 2009 study on more than 60,000 people also found that vegans had the lowest average BMI, followed by lacto-ovo vegetarians (those that eat dairy and eggs) and pescatarians (people who eat fish but no other meat). The group with the higher average BMI were nonvegetarians.

Lower risk of heart disease and other conditions

A 2019 study from the Journal of the American Heart Association found that middle aged adults who ate diets high in healthful plant foods and low in animal products had a lower risk of heart disease.

According to the American Heart Association , eating less meat can also reduce the risk of:

Diabetes prevention and treatment

Plant based diets may help people prevent or manage diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity and reducing insulin resistance.

Of the 60,000 people studied in 2009, only 2.9% of people on a vegan diet had type 2 diabetes, compared to 7.6% of those eating a nonvegetarian diet.

People eating vegetarian diets that included dairy and eggs also had a lower risk of type 2 diabetes than meat eaters.

Researchers have also looked at whether following a plant based diet can help treat diabetes. The authors of a 2018 review indicate that vegetarian and vegan diets could help people with diabetes reduce their medication needs, lose weight, and improve other metabolic markers.

The authors suggested that doctors might consider recommending plant based diets to people with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. While veganism showed the most benefits, the researchers stated that all plant based diets would lead to improvements.

People wanting to try a plant based diet should try one that they think they can follow long term.

Foods to eat

People should focus on eating the following food groups when transitioning to a plant based diet:


A plant based diet includes all fruits, such as:

  • berries
  • citrus fruits
  • bananas
  • apples
  • grapes
  • melons
  • avocado


A healthful plant based diet contains plenty of vegetables. Including a variety of colorful vegetables provides a wide range of vitamins and minerals.

Examples include:

  • broccoli
  • kale
  • beetroot
  • cauliflower
  • asparagus
  • carrots
  • tomatoes
  • peppers
  • zucchini

Root vegetables are a good source of carbohydrates and vitamins. They include:

  • sweet potato
  • potatoes
  • butternut squash
  • beets


Legumes are an excellent source of fiber and plant based protein. People can include a wide variety in their diet, including:

  • chickpeas
  • lentils
  • peas
  • kidney beans
  • black beans


Seeds are a great snack or an easy way to add extra nutrients into a salad or on top of a soup.

Sesame seeds contain calcium and sunflower seeds are a good source of vitamin E. Other seeds include:

  • pumpkin
  • chia
  • hemp
  • flax


Nuts are a good source of plant based protein and vitamins, such as selenium and vitamin E.

Healthful fats

It is vital to consume polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, as well as omega-3 fatty acids. Plant based sources include:

  • avocados
  • walnuts
  • chia seeds
  • hemp seeds
  • flaxseed
  • olive oil
  • canola oil

Whole grains

Whole grains are an excellent source of fiber and help maintain stable blood sugar. They also contain essential minerals, such as magnesium, copper, and selenium.

Examples of whole grains include:

Plant based milk

If people want to reduce their dairy intake, there is a wide range of plant based milk available in grocery stores and online. These include:

  • almond
  • soy
  • coconut
  • rice
  • oat
  • hemp

Just make sure to choose unsweetened plant milk options.

Foods to avoid

Just reducing or eliminating animal products does not automatically mean a plant based diet is healthful. It is also vital to reduce or avoid unhealthful foods, such as:

  • processed foods
  • sugary foods, such as cakes, biscuits, and pastries
  • refined white carbohydrates
  • processed vegan and vegetarian alternatives that may contain a lot of salt or sugar
  • excess salt
  • fatty, greasy, or deep fried foods

Recipes to get started

The following recipes can help a person get started with a plant based diet:







Before starting a plant based diet, people should ensure they take steps to get enough of the following nutrients:

Vitamin B-12

Vitamin B-12 is an essential nutrient for blood and cell health. B-12 deficiency can lead to anemia and nerve damage. B-12 is present in many animal products but not in many plant based foods.

People who eat a vegan or even a vegetarian diet could consider taking a B-12 supplement or consume products fortified with B-12. Foods include some cereals, plant based milk, and nutritional yeast.


People following a plant based diet may have to ensure they get enough iron in their diet, as it has lower bioavailability in plants than meat.

Plant based foods that are a good source of iron include:

  • kidney beans
  • black beans
  • soybeans
  • spinach
  • raisins
  • cashews
  • oatmeal
  • cabbage
  • tomato juice
  • dark leafy greens

Make sure to combine citrus and other vitamin C sources with plant based sources of iron to increase absorption.


Some people may have concerns about getting enough protein from a plant based diet. However, there is a wide variety of plant based sources of protein, including:

Consuming proteins from a variety of food sources can help provide all the necessary amino acids for good health. For example, people could add a handful of seeds or a spoonful of hummus to tofu or beans.

Omega-3 fatty acids

A person following a plant based diet may wish to consider taking an omega-3 supplement.

Omega-3 fatty acids are essential as they help reduce inflammation, memory loss, and other chronic conditions, such as heart disease. The two primary omega-3 fatty acids are EPA and DHA.

Fish, seafood, and animal products, such as eggs are among the primary sources EPA and DHA.

While several plant based foods, such as walnuts, hempseed, and flaxseed, contain omega-3 ALA, research shows that the body is slow and inefficient at converting ALA to EPA and DHA. Some people are also genetically at risk for poor absorption of ALA.

Vegetarians exhibit lower levels of DHA and EPA in blood and tissue, which may increase inflammation, memory difficulties, brain fog, and other effects. People following a plant based diet might want to consider taking an omega-3 supplement.

Some dietitians advise vegetarians to reduce the amount of pro-inflammatory linoleic acid they consume. Soybean, corn, sunflower, and safflower oils contain linoleic acid.


Eating a diet higher in plant foods and lower in animal products can have many health benefits, including weight loss or maintenance and a lower risk of heart disease and diabetes.

If people want to make the switch to a plant based diet, they can start by gradually reducing their meat and dairy intake.

Eating an entirely plant based meal once a week, or swapping out one animal product for a plant based one, can be an excellent place to start.

People may also wish to speak to a doctor or dietitian before making significant changes in their diet.

Plant Based diet

New Reports on Health and Well-being of Children During COVID-19 Pandemic

Today, CDC is releasing two new reports in MMWR that provide important insights on the health and well-being of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The first report looked at pediatric emergency department visits. The first report looked at pediatric emergency department visits. The study found that overall pediatric emergency department visits decreased in 2020, 2021, and in January 2022 compared with visits in 2019, while COVID-19-related emergency department visits increased across all pandemic years and among pediatric age groups. There were also increases in the weekly number and proportion of emergency department visits for certain types of injuries, some chronic diseases, and visits related to behavioral health concerns, especially among older children (5–11 years) and adolescents (12–17 years).  Factors affecting caregivers during the pandemic, including unavailable or unpredictable childcare, illness, financial hardship, and mental health concerns, might increase a child’s vulnerabilities. Loss of a parent or caregiver, increases in other challenges, and disruptions in daily routine due to the COVID-19 pandemic might have also increased a child’s behavioral health concerns and unhealthy coping behaviors.

The second report examined changes in pediatric emergency department visits for mental health conditions and found that adolescent girls (12–17 years) accounted for the largest increases in the number and proportion of emergency department visits for mental health conditions in 2020, 2021, and in January 2022 compared with 2019. Weekly visits for eating and tic disorders increased for females, and particularly adolescent females (12–17 years), during 2020, 2021, and in January 2022. The highly complex nature of individual experiences makes it difficult to identify a single reason for changes in mental health conditions during the pandemic. While extended time at home could increase familial support for some youth, it may have increased challenges and stressors among others. These factors, as well as other pandemic-related stressors that impact families (e.g., increases in parental mental health problems, parental substance use, financial strain, and loss of a parent or caregiver), could have created or increased the risk for mental health conditions.

Early identification and expanded evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies are critical to improving children’s mental health, especially among adolescent females who might have increased need. CDC recommends increased awareness for health concerns among children and adolescents that could arise due to delayed medical care and heightened emotional distress.CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether disease start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America’s most pressing health threats. CDC is headquartered in Atlanta and has experts located throughout the United States and the world.

Be a Heart-Health Role Model

Sharing is caring, but not when it comes to serious health conditions like diabetes or heart disease. These health conditions, like many others, can run in families. But there’s a lot you can do to help protect yourself and your family. Learn tips on how to be a heart-health role model for your family.

Heart disease is one of the most common complications of diabetes. And the longer you have diabetes, the more likely you are to develop heart disease. Recent studies show that people are developing type 2 diabetes at a much younger age, which means they will be affected by diabetes over a longer time and are at risk of developing diabetes complications like heart disease sooner.

If you have diabetes, you know how important healthy habits are to helping you manage the condition and prevent or delay complications like heart disease. And it’s not practical to have a different lifestyle than the rest of your family. So, what’s the key to being a heart-healthy role model? Getting your family involved! By showing your family how you’re taking steps to a healthy lifestyle, you’ll be a role model they can follow. Here are a few tips on how to be a heart-health role model for your family.

Share Your Family Health History

Like diabetes, heart disease can run in families. Having a family member with diabetes or heart disease increases your risk and the risk for others in your family. Talking about your family’s health history doesn’t only have to be a serious sit-down conversation. You can use family gatherings, mealtimes, or even coffee chats as a time to talk about your health history. You’ll want to:

  • Ask questions. Asking your relatives about which health conditions they have had and when they were diagnosed can help you find out about your risk.
  • Record and update information. Write down the information you collect and remember to update it as you learn more.
  • Share with other family members. Sharing your family’s health history will benefit all members of your family, and it’s especially important to share this information with your younger relatives so that they can take steps now to prevent or delay heart disease.

Gathering family health history is just the first step. The next step is to act on it. Share the information at medical appointments so your doctor can decide which screening tests you need and when you’ll need them. Identifying and treating diabetes, heart disease, and other chronic conditions early can often mean better health in the long run. By starting the conversation and sharing your family’s health history, everyone can take steps to lower their risk.

Get Moving With Your Family

Of course you can’t change your genes, but there are lifestyle changes you and your family can make to lower the risk of heart disease. Being active with your family is a great way to lead by example. If the kids in your family see you enjoying physical activity, they’ll be more likely to give it a try.

Ask the people in your family what they like to do to be active, and build your family physical activities around those. Here are a few fun ways to get started.

  • Go for a walk. You don’t have to do intense workouts to reap the benefits of physical activity. Walking is a great way to get exercise and spend time with your family.
  • Try hula hooping. Did you know hula hooping is excellent exercise? It’s a lot of fun and it’s great for the whole family, even grandma and grandpa.
  • Go for a bike ride. If you have knee or hip problems, bike riding is a great non-impact exercise. Kids love riding bikes too! Don’t forget to wear a helmet.
  • Dance. Turn family time into dance time. Dancing is a great way to burn calories and get your heart pumping. Whether it’s just two to tango or a family group for your dance troupe, you’ll be dancing your way toward a healthier you.

Share Family Meals

Work, school, and other life responsibilities can make it hard to come together for mealtimes, but there are real benefits to sharing meals with loved ones. Sharing family meals is not only a great opportunity to pass on healthy eating habits, it’s also been shown to decrease family stress and help kids do better in school. Teaching the younger ones in your family the importance of eating together may encourage them to pass this value on to their kids later. Here are some tips for planning family meals:

  • Keep it simple. Mealtime doesn’t have to be an elaborate event. Keep recipes simple and enjoyable for the whole family.
  • Get the family involved. Let kids help with planning meals, creating shopping lists, cooking, setting the table, and cleaning up.
  • Make mealtime screen-free. Make it a rule that phones and devices should be off or on mute and out of reach. This allows everyone to actively listen and be involved in the conversation.

At the Heart of It All

Being a heart-healthy role model involves knowing your risk, making healthy lifestyle choices, and taking steps to reduce the chance of getting heart disease. Managing diabetes is challenging even without having to manage a diabetes complication like heart disease. The good news is that you can do a lot to stay healthy and protect your heart—and the hearts of those you love.

Excess weight may accelerate brain aging

  • Obesity and overweight increase the risk of many health conditions.
  • A new study from Canada has found that excess body weight may also affect cognitive function, with inflammation possibly playing a role.
  • People with excess fatty tissue gained lower scores for processing speed in cognitive tests.
  • Physical exercise, which increases blood flow to the brain, may help limit cognitive impairment even in those with a high body mass index (BMI).

It is widely known that excess body weight is associated with many health conditions. Now, researchers have found an association between adiposity — having too much fatty tissue in the body — and cognitive impairment.

At the start of a new study, which appears in JAMA Network Open, Canadian researchers determined the adiposity of more than 9,000 participants. They measured both total body fat and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) — the fat that predominantly sits around organs in the abdominal cavity.

Previous studies have associated VAT, or visceral fat, with increased morbidity and a higher mortality risk. Visceral fat increases the risk of many conditions, such as:

  • heart disease, including heart attacks
  • type 2 diabetes
  • raised blood pressure
  • stroke
  • breast and colorectal cancer
  • Alzheimer’s disease

This latest study suggests that excess fat may have mental as well as physical effects.

Cognitive tests

All participants undertook two cognitive tests — the Digital Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) — to assess a range of cognitive functions.

The researchers adjusted the scores for cardiovascular risk factors, educational level, and MRI-detected vascular brain injury, which is known to be associated with cognitive impairment.

The researchers found that higher total body fat and higher VAT were both significantly associated with lower DSST and MoCA scores. The association was greater on the DSST, which assesses processing speed, than on the MoCA, which is a multidimensional cognitive test.

Compared with those in the lowest quartile (25%) of adiposity, the performance of those in the highest quartile was equivalent to an additional 3 years of cognitive aging.

These results are not unexpected, as Dr. Anton Porsteinsson, professor and director of the Alzheimer’s Disease Care, Research and Education Program (AD-CARE) at the University of Rochester Medical Center, told Medical News Today:

“It is well-known that greater adiposity and body fat are associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors and that those are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. This cross-sectional study found that excess adiposity was a risk factor for reduced cognitive scores, independent of cardiovascular risk factors, educational level, and MRI-detected vascular brain injury.”

This study reinforces findings from a previous study of older adults in Dublin, which found an association between adiposity, particularly central adiposity, and reduced cognitive function.

Possible causes

This study cannot prove a causative link between adiposity and cognitive impairment, as Dr. Eamon Laird, a senior research fellow at Trinity College Dublin in Ireland. 

“It is cross-sectional, and it can be hard to tease out the associations and identify if visceral adiposity is causative and not just correlated with reduced cognitive scores. But the association is clear.”

The researchers controlled for cardiovascular risk and vascular brain injury, both of which research has shown to cause cognitive impairment. So, what else might be responsible for the link?

Effect of inflammation

The authors suggest that inflammation may play a role in cognitive impairment in those with overweight or obesity. One recent study involving more than 15,000 individuals found high levels of plasma C-reactive protein, an inflammatory marker, in those with a high BMI and a high waist-hip ratio.

Dr. Porsteinsson agreed with this suggestion, saying, “Systemic inflammation and glucose intolerance emerge as lead suspects.”

Dr. Laird also supports inflammation having a role. He said, “Pro-inflammatory cytokines from adipose tissue could also potentially be contributing to tissue damage via inflammation.”

Hypertension and reduced blood flow

There are also other potential mechanisms. For example, “Adiposity can often go hand in hand with other chronic conditions, such as hypertension, which could be a separate mechanism,” Dr. Laird told MNT.

“Obesity could be associated with reduced blood flow to the brain, which may increase the risk of vascular microcellular damage, which could lead to [a] reduction in cognitive test score,” he added. In another study, which Dr. Laird co-authored, scientists found that a 1-centimeter increase in waist size gave the same reduction in blood flow as 1 year of aging.

Combating cognitive decline

This study confirms previous findings that overweight and obesity are associated with cognitive impairment, so what can people do to help combat this?

Dr. Porsteinsson suggested several measures that may help: “Weight loss, exercise (both aerobic and resistance training), control of diabetes/glucose intolerance, or speed of processing cognitive training are a few that come to mind.”

Citing study findings that those with a high BMI or high waist-hip ratio who did little physical activity had significantly lower cerebral blood flow, Dr. Laird added:

“Since physical activity could potentially moderate obesity/blood flow associations, this [increasing physical activity] may be a cost effective and relatively easy way to help mitigate the negative impact of obesity.”

“There are still many unanswered questions here, such as why a task of processing speed (DSST) is more impacted than a multidimensional cognitive test, so this study begs for further research.”

– Dr. Anton Porsteinsson

In summary, maintaining a moderate weight could benefit the brain as well as the body.

Magnesium may prime the immune system to fight cancer and infections

  • Magnesium deficiency has links to a wide range of diseases.
  • Researchers have now shown in mice how magnesium improves the ability of the immune system to eliminate infected and cancerous cells.
  • Their analysis of data from clinical studies also suggests that low serum levels of the substance are associated with worse outcomes in cancer treatment.
  • They plan to investigate the possible benefits of magnesium supplementation during cancer therapy in future clinical trials.

Experts define magnesium as an “essential macromineral,” meaning people need to consume it in relatively large amounts to remain healthy.

Rich dietary sources of the mineral include almonds, cashews, peanuts, and spinach. Walnuts also contain a particularly high amount of magnesium, with 100 grams containing 63% of the recommended daily allowance.

Adequate dietary intake of magnesium has associations with healthy bones, lower risk of type 2 diabetes, and better cardiovascular health.

The mineral also plays a key role in muscle contraction, nerve transmission, regulating blood pressure, and immunity.

Previous research has found that cancer spreads faster in mice on a low-magnesium diet. In addition, the animals have weaker immune defenses against influenza viruses.

However, there has been little research into exactly how magnesium supports healthy immune systems.

Scientists in Switzerland have now discovered that a type of immune cell, called a cytotoxic or “killer” T cell, can only eliminate cancerous or infected cells in the presence of magnesium.

Their study appears in Cell.

Docking site

The authors found that magnesium activates a protein called LFA-1 on the surface of cytotoxic T cells, which they use to lock on to their target cells.

“In the inactive state, this docking site is in a bent conformation and thus cannot efficiently bind to infected or abnormal cells,” explains senior author Dr. Christoph Hess, Ph.D., from the University of Basel in Switzerland and the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom.

“If magnesium is present in sufficient quantities in the vicinity of the T cells, it binds to LFA-1 and ensures that it remains in an extended — and therefore active — position,” he adds.

When the researchers analyzed data from past clinical trials of cancer immunotherapies, they found that low serum levels of magnesium were associated with more rapid disease progression and shorter survival.

“In light of our experimental data and the retrospective analyses we performed on two clinical trials, magnesium deficiency is very likely to be responsible for at least a proportion of the insufficient efficacy seen in cancer patients receiving immune therapy,” Dr. Hess told Medical News Today.

Magnesium and enzyme reactions

“The results don’t surprise me,” said Taylor C. Wallace, Ph.D., of the new study.

Dr. Wallace is senior fellow at the Center for Magnesium Education & Research in Hawaii, and adjunct professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Studies at George Mason University in Fairfax, VA.

“Magnesium is involved with over 600 enzymatic reactions in the body, many of which are involved with immune system function,” he told MNT.

However, he questioned whether serum magnesium concentration, which scientists often use to measure an individual’s status with regard to the mineral, is a reliable marker.

He pointed out that in serum, most magnesium is bound to the protein albumin and, therefore, not as freely available for the body as another form known as blood ionized magnesium.

“How extracellular magnesium affects immunity is an exciting and promising area of science,” he told MNT.

“However, the research community needs to be concurrently assessing whole blood ionized magnesium (not common in research) to fully understand how diet [or] supplements can influence status,” he added.

Boosting magnesium in tumors

Dr. Hess and his colleagues are now looking at ways to boost the concentration of magnesium in the tumors of patients.

He said that they aim to test whether they can use tiny parcels of fat — either lipid nanoparticles or liposomes — filled with magnesium and coated with antibodies to improve the efficacy of immune therapy.

“In our paper, we show that this is a successful strategy in mice,” he added.

They will also test whether giving magnesium supplements — either in pills or injections — to individuals with cancer can improve outcomes with two immune therapies: CAR T cell and PD1/PDL1 therapies.

“We have clinical trials in an advanced planning stage,” he said.

Their newly published study analyzed data on serum magnesium levels from previous clinical trials, so it was only able to establish an association rather than a causal link between magnesium and treatment outcomes.

It is also unknown whether regular magnesium intake, either through diet or supplements, can reduce the risk of developing cancer in healthy people.

Natural ways to cleanse your lungs

Lung cleansing techniques may benefit people who smoke, people who get regular exposure to air pollution, and those with chronic conditions that affect the respiratory system, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis.

Breathing in air pollution, cigarette smoke, and other toxins can damage the lungs and even cause health conditions. Maintaining the health of the lungs is essential for keeping the rest of the body healthy.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), exposure to air pollution results in 4.2 million deaths worldwide each year. Cigarette smoking is the cause of death for one in every five people in the United States.

In this article, we discuss some of the methods that people can use to try to cleanse their lungs.

Is it possible to cleanse your lungs?

Lung health is vital for a person’s overall health. The lungs are self-cleaning organs that will begin to heal themselves once their exposure to pollutants stops, for example, when someone quits smoking.

After the lungs have had exposure to pollution, such as cigarette smoke, a person’s chest may feel full, congested, or inflamed. Mucus gathers in the lungs to catch microbes and pathogens, which contributes to this feeling of heaviness.

People may be able to use specific techniques to help clear the lungs of mucus and irritants to relieve chest congestion and other uncomfortable symptoms.

Some of these methods may also open up the airways, improve lung capacity, and reduce inflammation, which can help reduce the effects of pollution and smoke in the lungs.

Ways to clear the lungs

Below, we look at breathing exercises and lifestyle changes that can help remove excess mucus from the lungs and improve breathing.

1. Steam therapy

Steam therapy, or steam inhalation, involves inhaling water vapor to open the airways and help the lungs drain mucus.

People with lung conditions may notice their symptoms worsening in cold or dry air. This climate can dry out the mucous membranes in the airways and restrict blood flow.

Conversely, steam adds warmth and moisture to the air, which may improve breathing and help loosen mucus inside the airways and lungs. Inhaling water vapor can provide immediate relief and help people breathe more easily.

A small study involving 16 males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a lung condition that makes it harder to breathe, found that steam mask therapy led to significantly lower heart rates and respiratory rates than non-steam mask therapy.

However, the participants did not report lasting improvements in their respiratory function.

This therapy may be an effective temporary solution, but researchers need to do more research before they fully understand the benefits of steam therapy on lung health.

2. Controlled coughing

Coughing is the body’s way of naturally expelling toxins that it has trapped in mucus. Controlled coughing loosens excess mucus in the lungs, sending it up through the airways.

Doctors recommend that people with COPD perform this exercise to help clear their lungs.

People can follow the steps below to cleanse their lungs of excess mucus:

  • sit down on a chair with the shoulders relaxed, keeping both feet flat on the floor
  • fold the arms over the stomach
  • slowly inhale through the nose
  • slowly exhale while leaning forward, pushing the arms against the stomach
  • cough 2 or 3 times while exhaling, keeping the mouth slightly open
  • slowly inhale through the nose
  • rest and repeat as necessary

3. Drain mucus from the lungs

Postural drainage involves lying in different positions to use gravity to remove mucus from the lungs. This practice may improve breathing and help treat or prevent lung infections.

Postural drainage techniques differ depending on the position:

1. On your back

  • Lie down on the floor or a bed.
  • Place pillows under the hips to ensure that the chest is lower than the hips.
  • Slowly inhale through the nose and exhale through the mouth. Each exhale should take twice as long as the inhale, which is called 1:2 breathing.
  • Continue for a few minutes.

2. On your side

  • Lie on one side, resting the head on an arm or pillow.
  • Place pillows under the hips.
  • Practice the 1:2 breathing pattern.
  • Continue for a few minutes.
  • Repeat on the other side.

3. On your stomach

  • Place a stack of pillows on the floor.
  • Lie down with the stomach over the pillows. Remember to keep the hips above the chest.
  • Fold the arms under the head for support.
  • Practice the 1:2 breathing pattern.
  • Continue for a few minutes.

4. Exercise

Regular exercise can improve people’s physical and mental health, and it decreases the risk of many health conditions, including stroke and heart disease.

Exercise forces the muscles to work harder, which increases the body’s breathing rate, resulting in a greater supply of oxygen to the muscles. It also improves circulation, making the body more efficient in removing the excess carbon dioxide that the body produces when exercising.

The body will start to adapt to meet the demands of regular exercise. The muscles will learn to use oxygen more efficiently and produce less carbon dioxide.

Although exercising may be more difficult for people with chronic lung conditions, these individuals can also benefit from regular exercise. People who have COPD, cystic fibrosis, or asthma should consult a healthcare professional before starting a new exercise regimen.

5. Green tea

Green tea contains many antioxidants that may help reduce inflammation in the lungs. These compounds may even protect lung tissue from the harmful effects of smoke inhalation.

A recent study involving more than 1,000 adults in Korea reported that people who drank at least 2 cups of green tea per day had better lung function than those who drank none.

6. Anti-inflammatory foods

Inflammation of the airways can make breathing difficult and cause the chest to feel heavy and congested. Eating anti-inflammatory foods can reduce inflammation to relieve these symptoms.

Foods that help fight inflammation include:

  • turmeric
  • leafy greens
  • cherries
  • blueberries
  • olives
  • walnuts
  • beans
  • lentils

7. Chest percussion

Percussion is another effective way to remove excess mucus from the lungs. A healthcare professional or respiratory therapist will use a cupped hand to rhythmically tap the chest wall to dislodge trapped mucus in the lungs.

Combining chest percussion and postural drainage can help clear the airways of excess mucus.


Toxins from cigarette smoke or air pollution that enter the lungs can affect the whole body. These toxins eventually become trapped inside mucus.

Good respiratory health depends on whether or not the body effectively removes mucus from the lungs and airways.

People who have damaged lungs may have a harder time than others clearing mucus from their system. Chronic conditions, such as COPD, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, cause excess mucus production or unusually thick mucus that can clog the lungs.

Lung cleansing techniques, including postural drainage, chest percussion, and breathing exercises, can help dislodge mucus from the lungs and airways. Steam therapy may offer temporary relief to people who suffer from congestion or chronic respiratory conditions.

Regularly exercising, drinking green tea, and eating anti-inflammatory foods are lifestyle changes that may improve lung health and decrease the risk of health conditions.

COVID-19 live updates: Is ‘Deltacron’ a real variant?

  • The coronavirus outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. 
  • Known as SARS-CoV-2, the virus has resulted in more than 307 millioninfections and over 5.4 million deaths.
  • Keep up to date with the latest research and information about COVID-19 here.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently monitoring five variants of concern: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron.

01/10/2022 15:00 GMT — Is ‘Deltacron’ a real variant?

According to recent media reports, a scientist from the University of Cyprus claims to have identified a new variant of SARS-CoV-2, which they have dubbed “Deltacron.”

The researcher claims to have identified this variant in 25 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The name is a combination of “Delta” and “Omicron,” since, according to the scientist, this variant exhibits genetic similarities to both Delta and Omicron.

“We will see in the future if this strain is more pathological or more contagious” than previous variants, Prof. Leondios Kostrikis — who is a professor of biological sciences at the University of Cyprus and head of the Laboratory of Biotechnology and Molecular Virology — told Sigma TV.

Other researchers, however, have cast doubts on the legitimacy of these claims, saying that the so-called combination variant is likely the result of a laboratory error.

“This is almost certainly not a biological recombinant of the Delta and Omicron lineages,” says Dr. Jeffrey Barrett, director of the COVID-19 Genomics Initiative at the Wellcome Sanger Institute.

“The apparent Omicron mutations are located precisely and exclusively in a section of the sequence encoding the spike gene […] affected by a technological artifact in certain sequencing procedures,” he says.

Nevertheless, Prof. Kostrikis has defended his initial claim, noting that the samples where the Deltacron variant appeared had undergone genetic sequencing in multiple laboratories from multiple countries.

For the time being, Deltacron’s existence remains subject to continued debate.

01/10/2022 14:46 GMT — COVID-19: Did Omicron evolve in mice?

A recent study published in the Journal of Genetics and Genomics investigates the origin of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2.

According to the study authors, this variant presents a pattern of mutations that is also typical of a virus that has infected mice. This suggests that Omicron may have evolved in rodents.“

We believe that Omicron likely evolved in a wild mouse population,” the senior author of the study, Wenfeng Qian, Ph.D., told Medical News Today.

Read the story in full here.

01/10/2022 12:47 GMT — Covaxin booster offers long-term protection, Bharat Biotech claims

Bharat Biotech — a biotechnology company based in India — reported on Saturday, January 8, that a booster dose of its COVID-19 vaccine, Covaxin, offers long-term protection against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

According to the Bharat Biotech press release, a phase 2, double-blind, randomized controlled trial demonstrated that, at 6 months after receipt of the second Covaxin dose, a booster dose increased neutralization titres against wild-type and Delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 fivefold.

Read more about Covaxin here.

01/10/2022 12:20 GMT — Pfizer vaccine can prevent multisystem inflammatory syndrome in 12–18-year-olds

recent study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests that two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine can prevent multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) aged 12–18 years.

MIS-C is a serious inflammatory condition reported in some children and teens who have had COVID-19 or who have been exposed to the virus that causes this disease.

The exact causes of this condition remain unknown, but since it can affect many organs — including the heart, lungs, kidneys, and brain — and can require hospitalization, researchers are keen on finding ways to prevent it.

According to the CDC study, “Receipt of two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is highly effective in preventing MIS-C in persons aged 12–18 years.” The effectiveness rate was 91%.

Read about the long-term effects of COVID-19 here.

01/07/2022 09:54 GMT — Some gut bacteria may protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection

Scientists recently investigated whether bacteria from the human microbiome could inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 virus. They identified three bacterial metabolites that inhibited infection. Remarkably, these natural bacterial metabolites resemble drugs that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved and that clinical research is exploring as treatments for COVID-19.

Read more about the research here.

01/07/2022 09:28 GMT — IHU variant probably not cause for concern

A new coronavirus variant — the IHU variant, or B.1.640.2 — has been widely covered in the media. In a recent press briefing, Dr. Abdi Mahamud, incident manager for the World Health Organization (WHO), explained that they are monitoring the variant but do not believe it is a cause for concern.

preprint published last month brought attention to the IHU variant, following its discovery in France. However, it had first been identified weeks before Omicron. Despite this head start, the variant remains rare among the population.

The IHU variant is a “phylogenetic sister group” of B.1.640, which the WHO designated a “variant under monitoring” in November 2021. However, it could not compete with the Delta variant.

01/06/2022 14:43 GMT — More evidence of SARS-CoV-2 presence in white-tailed deer populations

In a recent study, scientiststested nasal swabs from 360 wild white-tailed deer in six locations within Ohio state. They detected SARS-CoV-2 in 129 animals (35.8%). The results, which appear in Nature, back up earlier research suggesting that white-tailed deer might become a reservoir for the virus.

“No spillback to humans was observed, but these findings demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 viruses have the capacity to transmit in [United States] wildlife, potentially opening new pathways for evolution,” the authors write.

“There is an urgent need to establish comprehensive ‘One Health’ programs to monitor deer, the environment, and other wildlife hosts globally.”

Read more about SARS-CoV-2 and white-tailed deer here.

01/06/2022 10:43 GMT — Italy: COVID-19 vaccination mandatory for those 50 or older

As Italy experiences a surge in SARS-CoV-2 infections, the government has made it compulsory for people aged 50 or older to get vaccinated.

Additionally, as of February 15, people over 50 who work must present a health pass proving immunization or recovery from COVID-19.

“We are making these choices in order to restrict the unvaccinated as much as possible, as this is what is causing the burden on our hospital system,” says Italy’s health minister, Roberto Speranza.

The country’s death toll — more than 138,000 to date — is the second highest in Europe, after the United Kingdom. Italy registered 189,109 new SARS-CoV-2 infections yesterday.

Find more live updates here.

01/06/2022 09:52 GMT — Can mental health experts help improve vaccine hesitancy?

Given that uptake of vaccines is low among young adults — and young adulthood is the age of onset for many mental health problems  mental health experts are uniquely suited to help overcome resistance to COVID-19 vaccination. This is the message of a recent opinion column that appears in JAMA Psychiatry.

Read more here.

01/05/2022 13:48 GMT — COVID-19 vaccines do not trigger preterm births, CDC study finds

Having a COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of delivering babies prematurely or giving birth to atypically small babies, according to a large study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Researchers analyzed the records of 46,079 pregnant women, of whom over one-fifth had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine dose, typically during their second or third trimester. Most had received an mRNA vaccine, either the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna.

There were no significant differences in preterm or underweight birth rates between the vaccinated and unvaccinated.

The study adds to evidence that COVID-19 vaccines are safe for pregnant women. Furthermore, developing COVID-19 during pregnancy has been linked to a higher risk of hospitalization, intubation, and death.

Read more about the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnancy here.

01/05/2022 11:06 GMT — US, UK break daily COVID-19 case records amid Omicron surge

The United States recorded over a million new COVID-19 cases on Monday, marking the highest figure for any country in the world since the pandemic broke out.

Data compiled by Johns Hopkins University showed 1,082,549 people tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on that day —around double the previous U.S. record.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Omicron variant accounted for 95.4% of COVID-19 cases in the U.S. last week.

Meanwhile, in the United Kingdom, the number of confirmed daily COVID-19 cases also hit another record high on Tuesday, with 218,724 people testing positive.

The news comes as Prime Minister Boris Johnson said that the government would not impose lockdowns and would continue with its “plan B,” which involves mask mandates, daily testing, and working from home when possible.

Read more COVID-19 updates here.

01/04/2022 12:11 GMT — FDA authorizes Pfizer booster for 12–15-year-olds

On Monday, January 3, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine booster shot for 12–15-year-olds.

The federal agency also ruled that preteens and teens in this age group would be eligible to receive their booster shot after a 5-month interval from their second vaccine dose.

Furthermore, the FDA approved third COVID-19 vaccine doses for children aged 5–11 years who have a weakened immune system.

According to Peter Marks, director of the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, “Based on the FDA’s assessment of currently available data, a booster dose of the currently authorized vaccines may help provide better protection against both the Delta and Omicron variants.”

01/04/2022 11:37 GMT — Israel reports its first case of COVID-19 and flu coinfection

An unvaccinated pregnant woman has been diagnosed with COVID-19 and seasonal influenza at the same time, according to a report from the Times of Israel.

The patient was discharged from the hospital on Thursday, and her doctors said that she was in good condition.

“The disease is the same disease. They’re viral and cause difficulty breathing, since both attack the upper respiratory tract,” said Prof. Arnon Vizhnitser, the director of the hospital’s gynecology department.

This coinfection has been dubbed “flurona,” and there have likely been other cases elsewhere in the world, as several studies have suggested.

Read more here about the safety of getting vaccinated against COVID-19 and the flu at the same time.

01/04/2022 11:11 GMT — New B.1.640.2 variant with 46 mutations discovered in France

A new SARS-CoV-2 variant, identified as B.1.640.2, has been detected in at least 12 patients in southern France, according to reports.

pre-print paper that has not yet undergone peer review found that the variant has 46 mutations compared to the original variant. Data so far suggest the variant could be Cameroonian in origin and spread via travel to Forcalquier, in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence region.

Researchers say it is too early to speculate about the variant’s severity or transmissibility.

Experts, such as Prof. Francois Balloux, have said the variant does not explain the recent surge in COVID-19 cases in the same region, nor is it associated with ICU cases.

Health experts have not yet detected the variant in other countries, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has not classified it as a variant of concern (VOC).

Read more here about how we may be contributing to new SARS-CoV-2 variants.

12/23/2021 12:49 GMT — Young people less likely to have long COVID than early studies suggested

meta-analysis of studies has indicated that long COVID might be less of a risk for young people than previously thought.

Although children and young people often report persistent symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection, researchers found similar symptoms in those who had tested positive and negative for the virus.

However, children who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were slightly more likely to have some lingering symptoms.

Read more about the study here.

12/23/2021 12:07 GMT — COVID-19 may have a molecular link with Parkinson’s

study has found that the N-protein of SARS-CoV-2 can speed up the formation of the amyloid fibrils responsible for Parkinson’s.

The study joins a few case studies suggesting a link between COVID-19 and Parkinson’s after three relatively young people were diagnosed with the degenerative brain disease following a COVID-19 infection.

However, as this was a test-tube study, there is no evidence that this can happen in the human brain. Researchers remain skeptical.

If future studies support this finding, it could have implications for the development of next-generation vaccines against the virus.

Read more about it here.

12/23/2021 11:54 GMT — 3 in 10 COVID-19 patients not fully recovered after 1 year

A recent study found that fewer than 3 in 10 people felt they had fully recovered 12 months after leaving hospital following treatment for COVID-19.

Furthermore, researchers found that females and people with obesity, systemic inflammation, and more severe symptoms during the initial infection had an increased risk of having long COVID and related health impairments.

Read MNT‘s coverage of the study here.

If you would like to read a first-hand account of a doctor’s struggle with long Covid, head here.

12/23/2021 11:45 GMT — UK daily COVID-19 cases top 100K for the first time

The United Kingdom recorded 106,122 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection on Wednesday for the first time since the COVID-19 pandemic began. The surge has been largely fueled by the more infectious Omicron variant.

The figure showed a 35% increase, compared with the past week. The previous record came on December 17, with
93,045 cases.

On Thursday, the Office for National Statistics said 1 in 45 people in England had COVID-19 last week, a rate that rose to 1 in 30 in London.

The case data comes a day after the country had administered a record 968,665 boosters and third doses of COVID-19 vaccines.

This week, the U.K. also moved to offer clinically vulnerable 5–11-year-olds a lower, pediatric dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. A final decision awaits approval by ministers.

Read more about vaccines and Omicron here.

12/23/2021 11:27 GMT — US authorizes first COVID-19 pill for at-home treatment

On Wednesday, the United States authorized Pfizer’s antiviral pill Paxlovid — its first oral COVID-19 treatment — for at-home use for people aged 12 years and older at risk of severe illness.

Paxlovid had an efficacy of almost 90% in preventing hospitalizations and deaths in patients deemed high risk. Pfizer has also said its trials suggest the pill remains effective against Omicron. 

The move comes as the U.S. is experiencing a surge in Omicron cases, which now make up over 73% of all infections.

Health experts also predict Merck’s antiviral pill will get approval for use soon.

Read more about Paxlovid here.

12/22/2021 10:47 GMT — Israel set to give 4th vaccine dose to over-60s in world first

Israel could become the first country to trial a fourth dose of COVID-19 vaccines, after Prime Minister Naftali Bennett announced on Tuesday that the booster would be offered to anyone over the age of 60 and at-risk groups, including medical teams and people with weakened immune systems.

Eligible people will be able to receive their booster 4 months after their third dose.

“The citizens of Israel were the first in the world to receive the third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, and we are continuing to pioneer with the fourth dose, as well,” he said.

The move comes after the country’s first reported death from the Omicron variant and its rapid global spread.

Data so far do not indicate a necessity for a fourth dose, though research is ongoing.

Read more here about how vaccines stand the test against Omicron.

12/22/2021 10:27 GMT — England drops self-isolation from 10 days to 7 for those who test negative

People who have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and are currently in self-isolation in England will be able to get out of their quarantine up to 3 days early if they test negative twice, Health Secretary Sajid Javid has announced.

To be able to end self-isolating, people will have to provide negative lateral flow test results from days six and seven.

This will apply to all people, whether they are fully vaccinated or not. Those who tested positive on Friday or started showing symptoms last week can also benefit from this change in guidance.

Javid said the government was introducing the measure to minimize disruption caused by the rapid surge and spread of the Omicron variant across the country.

Read more COVID-19 updates here.

12/21/2021 14:10 GMT — Omicron now accounts for almost 75% of COVID-19 cases in the US

Omicron, the new SARS-CoV-2 variant, now accounts for 73% of COVID-19 cases in the United States. This is according to the most recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 

The new variant is responsible for even more cases in some parts of the country. About 90% of infections in New York, the Southeast, the industrial Midwest, and the Pacific Northwest are due to Omicron. 

The CDC also notes that approximately 650,000 Omicron infections occurred in the U.S. last week, according to data released on Monday.

Find out more here.

12/21/2021 13:30 GMT — EU authorizes Novavax vaccine

The European Union has authorized the Novavax COVID-19 vaccine for use across its 27 nations. The vaccine received conditional marketing authorization for people aged 18 years and over on Monday. 

The United States-based manufacturer announced that it is currently testing the vaccine’s effectiveness against Omicron. 

Read the full story here

12/20/2021 13:55 GMT — Moderna preliminary data suggest booster effective against Omicron

On Monday, December 20, pharmaceutical and biotechnology company Moderna published preliminary data about the effectiveness of its COVID-19 vaccine booster against the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2.

According to Stéphane Bancel, chief executive officer of Moderna, “These data [show] that the currently authorized Moderna COVID-19 booster can boost neutralizing antibody levels 37-fold higher than pre-boost levels.” Bancel calls these results “reassuring.”

The United States has authorized a 50-microgram Moderna booster, which contains half the dose of a baseline Moderna COVID-19 shot.

12/20/2021 13:50 GMT — Sinopharm booster may provide little protection against Omicron

Sinopharm’s COVID-19 vaccine booster, BBIBP-CorV — authorized for use in China and the Philippines — provides very little if any protection against the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2.

The research has not yet undergone peer review, and these results are available online in preprint form.

According to the study, the Sinopharm booster’s neutralizing antibody activity against Omicron “reduced 20.1-fold compared with its activity against a wild-type strain of the coronavirus.”

“In conclusion, a third booster dose of BBIBP-CorV [led] to a significant rebound in neutralizing immune response against SARS-CoV-2, while the Omicron variant showed extensive but incomplete escape of the booster elicited neutralization,” the study authors write. 

12/20/2021 12:21 GMT — New U.K. report claims Omicron more likely to reinfect

A newly published report from Imperial College London in the United Kingdom claims that the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is more likely to reinfect than the Delta variant.

The researchers who authored this report estimate that there is a “5.41 […] fold higher risk of reinfection [with Omicron compared with Delta,” which suggests that an initial infection with the Omicron variant results in weak immune protection.

While this report used real-world data to calculate this estimate, there are nevertheless some caveats regarding these data.

Prof. Penny Ward — an independent pharmaceutical physician and visiting professor in pharmaceutical medicine at King’s College London, not involved with the report — explains that “the majority of confirmed Omicron infections reported in the dataset are from young adults, many of African descent, primarily in the London region, which is a pattern very different to that observed with Delta variant infections.”

“In particular,” she adds, “the current clustering of cases of Omicron infection in younger age adults, who are inherently less likely to be hospitalized or to die from COVID, limits the extent to which differences in severity of illness following the infection caused by these two variants can be assessed.”

12/17/2021 10:59 GMT — CDC recommends mRNA COVID-19 vaccines over J&J

In a recent statement, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise that, where possible, individuals should choose an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine — Moderna or Pfizer — over Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine. This advice is based on the conclusion that mRNA vaccines offer greater protection and fewer risks.

In the statement, the CDC writes:

“The U.S. supply of mRNA vaccines is abundant — with nearly 100 million doses in the field for immediate use. This updated CDC recommendation follows similar recommendations from other countries, including Canada and the United Kingdom.”

“Given the current state of the pandemic both here and around the world, the ACIP reaffirmed that receiving any vaccine is better than being unvaccinated. Individuals who are unable or unwilling to receive an mRNA vaccine will continue to have access to Johnson & Johnson’s COVID-19 vaccine.”

Read how mRNA vaccines work here.

12/17/2021 09:46 GMT — Projected impact of Omicron on elective surgery in the UK

A research letter that appears in The Lancet calculates the affects that the Omicron wave might have on surgical backlogs. It concludes that if Omicron causes a spike similar to the one in April 2020, it could lead to the cancellation of an additional 100,273 elective operations in England from December 2021 to February 2022.

One of the authors, Dr. Aneel Bhangu, a clinician scientist in global surgery at the National Institute for Health Research and senior lecturer at the University of Birmingham, in the United Kingdom, comments:

“Cancellations may mean that patients wait even longer for operations like hip replacements, resulting in deterioration of their symptoms and increased disability. Ringfenced elective hubs are urgently needed to protect elective surgery this winter.”

12/17/2021 09:12 GMT — Autoimmunity may help explain long COVID

A recent paper discusses how antibodies that the body produces after the initial immune response to SARS-CoV-2 may also bind the same target cells as the virus. This, the authors theorize, might help explain why individuals experience long COVID symptoms months after infection.

Read more about the study here.

12/16/2021 11:45 GMT — Omicron multiplies 70 times faster than Delta

According to a recent laboratory study, which is yet to be peer-reviewed, Omicron replicates 70 times faster than the Delta variant in cells from the upper respiratory tract. However, the scientists also found that Omicron replicates 10 times less efficiently in lung tissue than the original SARS-CoV-2 virus.

These findings may help explain why Omicron is particularly transmittable — more virus particles in the upper airways make it more likely to move from one individual to another.

The fact that it replicates less well in lung tissue might hint that it causes less severe disease. However, laboratory studies on cells do not always translate to humans.

Dr. Muge Cevik, a clinical lecturer in infectious diseases and medical virology at the University of St. Andrews in the United Kingdom, discussed the findings on Twitter. She explains:

“Less efficient replication in the lungs may suggest lower severity, but severity in humans is not determined only by virus replication but also the host immune response.”

“For those asking whether this is good [or] bad news, simple answer: I don’t know. While Omicron may infect the lung cells less efficiently, a higher viral load may worsen immune response,” she concludes.

12/16/2021 10:28 GMT — “No need for a variant-specific booster,” according to Dr. Fauci

Yesterday, at a White House press briefing, the president’s chief medical adviser, Dr. Anthony Fauci, announced that scientists would not need to change current COVID-19 vaccines to tackle the Omicron variant. “Our booster vaccine regimens work against Omicron. At this point, there is no need for a variant-specific booster,” he said.

Read more about Omicron here.

12/15/2021 12:10 GMT — Scientists create experimental antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 from ‘deadly carrot’

A Mediterranean plant called Thapsia garganica, more commonly known as deadly carrot, may become a promising alternative way to combat COVID-19, recent research suggests.

In experiments testing the antiviral performance of thapsigargin, a compound in the roots and fruits of the plant, researchers discovered that it blocked all infection with Alpha, Beta, or Delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 in human cells.

The compound has been used in folk medicine as a herbal remedy for rheumatic pain and infertility in females.

Read more about the study here.

12/15/2021 11:55 GMT — Fighting COVID-19 with a lettuce-based chewing gum

Researchers have developed a chewing gum derived from lettuce that can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 in saliva, and therefore believe it may help reduce transmission of the virus.

Their study showed that the chewing gum lowered the levels of viral RNA in saliva to almost undetectable levels.

The researchers are now seeking to test the chewing gum in clinical trials.

Read MNT’s coverage of the study here.

12/15/2021 11:45 GMT — Research unmasks the environmental impact of PPE

New research has found that in 11 countries, the number of masks that ended up as litter is as high as 2 million. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, there was almost no litter related to masks, the study points out.

Similar increases were recorded for other types of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves and wipes.

Read more here about the extent of PPE litter during the early months of the pandemic.

12/14/2021 16:01 GMT — Pfizer’s COVID-19 pill has 89% efficacy

In a study including 2,246 high-risk individuals, Pfizer’s antiviral pill — Paxlovid — had an efficacy of 89% at preventing hospitalization and death from COVID-19. However, it is worth noting that the study has not been peer-reviewed.

These data are timely for Pfizer. Yesterday, Merck announced the full clinical trial data for its COVID-19 antiviral drug, molnupiravir. Unlike Paxlovid, molnupiravir had a lower-than-expected efficacy. Initial results showed a 50% reduction in hospitalization, but the latest results show just a 30% reduction.

Andrew Pekosz, M.D., vice chair of microbiology and immunology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 

in Baltimore, hopes that Paxlovid is “a really important weapon in our arsenal to fight COVID-19, particularly as we see more variants that are going to be chipping at that efficacy number.”

Read more about molnupiravir here.

12/14/2021 14:47 GMT — COVID-19: ‘Deadly carrot’ compound may be effective antiviral

A new study suggests that an antiviral compound called thapsigargin is able to block coinfection with two variants of SARS-CoV-2 in cell cultures.

Thapsigargin comes from Thapsia Garganica, a Mediterranean plant commonly known as deadly carrot. The study paper appears in the journal Virulence.

Read our full coverage of this story here.

12/14/2021 11:08 GMT — 2 doses of Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine give 70% protection against hospitalization with Omicron

Two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine provide 70% protection against hospitalization and severe disease from the Omicron variant, a real-world study in South Africa has revealed.

The data, based on some 211,000 positive COVID-19 test results from mid-November to early December, was released in a briefing by Discovery Health, South Africa’s largest private health insurance administrator, on Tuesday. MNT has been unable to identify the original report.

The briefing described reduced effectiveness for Pfizer’s two-shot primary series against severe outcomes, which provided 93% protection against Delta.

As for infection, the double shot also provided about 33% protection against Omicron, down from 80% for Delta.

The data support previous findings that a third dose increased antibody titers and provided significant protection against Omicron.

Read more about why Omicron is worrying scientists here.

12/13/2021 15:32 GMT — ‘Science is flawed’: COVID-19, ivermectin, and beyond

In an op-ed for Medical News Today, Gideon Meyerowitz-Katz, an epidemiologist and writer based in Sydney, Australia, outlines some prominent issues with research that have become increasingly apparent during the COVID-19 pandemic.

As a case study, he offers the example of ivermectin. “It is likely that more ivermectin has been taken to prevent or treat COVID-19 than any other single medication, except perhaps dexamethasone,” Meyerowitz-Katz writes.“

And yet, we do not know if ivermectin is actually useful in the treatment of COVID-19 at all.”

Read Meyerowitz-Katz’s op-ed in full here.

12/13/2021 15:30 GMT — Pfizer booster increases protection against Omicron 100-fold, Israeli study finds

According to researchers from Israel, receiving the two regular doses of a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine plus a third booster shot can provide “significant protection” against the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2.

The findings come from research conducted by the Sheba Medical Center and the Health Ministry’s Central Virology Laboratory in Israel.

This study involved comparing blood samples from 20 people who had received the two regular Pfizer doses 5–6 months previously to that of 20 participants who had received a third booster dose 1 month before.

“The good news is that with the booster dose [neutralization ability against Omicron] increases about a hundredfold,” says Gili Regev-Yochay, director of the Infectious Diseases Unit at Sheba Medical Center.

“There is a significant protection of the booster dose.” However, she admits, “[i]t is lower than the neutralization ability against the Delta [variant], about four times lower.”

12/13/2021 15:24 GMT — Could a global ‘vaccine tax’ help achieve vaccine equity?

As of December 9, 2021, more than 8.1 billion COVID-19 vaccine doses have been administered worldwide, most of these in high income countries.

In low income countries, only 8.35% of the population has received at least one vaccine dose. The most significant barrier that stands in the way of equitable vaccine distribution is the high cost of vaccines, which renders them largely unavailable in countries that cannot afford them.

A new paper in the BMJ Journal of Medical Ethics suggests that one solution to vaccine inequity might be applying a vaccine “tax” based on a purchasing nation’s ability to pay for vaccines.

“For every vaccine bought, a fraction of the price paid for the vaccine is set aside to create a fairer vaccine distribution,” proposes paper author Dr. Andreas Brøgger Albertsen, of Aarhus University in Denmark.

“Under the vaccine tax scheme, the selling firm is responsible for transferring the money raised in this way to COVAX,” the World Health Organization’s (WHO) initiative “for pooled procurement and equitable distribution of COVID-19 vaccines.”

Read our coverage of this story here.

12/13/2021 12:42 GMT — WHO reiterates warning about Omicron risk

A new technical brief from the World Health Organization (WHO) reiterates that the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 could be highly transmissible and asks member states to enhance their pandemic preparedness measures.

“Omicron variant is a highly divergent variant with a high number of mutations, including 26-32 in the spike protein, some of which are concerning and may be associated with immune escape potential and higher transmissibility,” the brief states.

The WHO’s risk assessment concludes that “[t]he overall risk related to the new variant of concern Omicron remains very high for a number of reasons,” including those stated above.WHO’s advice to member states includes:

  • enhancing data collection and research on Omicron and other SARS-CoV-2 variants
  • accelerating vaccination rollouts
  • continuing to maintain basic public health measures, including adequate masking, physical distancing, and ensuring appropriate indoor ventilation.

12/10/2021 09:40 GMT — Boosters now available to 16–17-year olds in US

Yesterday, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provided emergency authorization for people aged 16–17 to get a third dose of the Pfizer vaccine. They will be eligible for the shot 6 months after the second dose.

Dr. Rochelle Walensky, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) encouraged this age group to take up the booster shot. “We know protection wanes over time,” she explains, and “we’re facing a variant that has the potential to require more immunity to be protected.”

Acting commissioner of the FDA, Dr. Janet Woodcock, says, “Vaccination and getting a booster when eligible, along with other preventive measures like masking and avoiding large crowds and poorly ventilated spaces, remain our most effective methods for fighting COVID-19.”

12/10/2021 09:22 GMT — COVID-19: Do windy days reduce transmission?

A recent study investigated the role of wind speed in SARS-CoV-2 transmission in outdoor spaces. Reduced wind speed had associations with transmission rates during warmer spells. However, below a certain temperature, wind speed made little difference, possibly because people were more likely to socialize indoors.

Read more here.

12/09/2021 14:26 GMT — Will COVID-19 vaccines stand the test of Omicron?

Since the emergence of Omicron, one question has been on everyone’s mind: Will the vaccines protect against it? Until more data are available, there are no firm answers, but many are optimistic that vaccines offer at least some protection. Medical News Today investigated the current hypotheses in a new feature.

12/09/2021 11:34 GMT — Pfizer vaccine versus Omicron: Preliminary data

In a press release, Pfizer has outlined preliminary data on how its COVID-19 vaccine fares against the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2.

The results of the laboratory work demonstrate that “Three doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine neutralize the Omicron variant […] while two doses show significantly reduced neutralization titers.”

The company explains that a third dose increases levels of Omicron-neutralizing antibodies 25-fold.

Levels of neutralizing antibodies following the booster jab are comparable to the levels observed after two doses against wild-type SARS-CoV-2. These levels, Pfizer says, are “associated with high levels of protection.”

Pfizer’s chairman and chief executive officer, Albert Bourla, explains: 

“Although two doses of the vaccine may still offer protection against severe disease caused by the Omicron strain, it’s clear from these preliminary data that protection is improved with a third dose of our vaccine. Ensuring as many people as possible are fully vaccinated with the first two dose series and a booster remains the best course of action to prevent the spread of COVID-19.”

As the press release acknowledges, these data are preliminary, and the company will continue to collect real-world data.

Read more about the Omicron variant here.

12/09/2021 10:33 GMT — FDA authorizes long-acting monoclonal antibodies for preexposure prevention of COVID-19

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an emergency use authorization for AstraZeneca’s Evusheld. The drug will be used to prevent COVID-19 in people with severely compromised immune systems or a history of severe adverse reactions to a vaccine.

According to its press release, Evusheld “is only authorized for those individuals who [currently do not have a SARS-CoV-2 infection] and who have not recently been exposed to an individual [with the SARS-CoV-2 virus].”

Evusheld is administered by two intramuscular injections in quick succession. Each injection contains one of two monoclonal antibodies: tixagevimab or cilgavimab.

The FDA also makes it clear that “Evusheld is not a substitute for vaccination in individuals for whom COVID-19 vaccination is recommended.”

12/08/2021 14:02 GMT — UK: Omicron cases doubling every ‘2–3 days’

According to Prof. Neil Ferguson from the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies in the United Kingdom, Omicron cases are doubling every 2–3 days in the U.K. He explains, “It’s likely to overtake Delta before Christmas at this rate.” Omicron cases are particularly high in London and Scotland.

During the interview, which aired on BBC Radio 4, the interviewer inquired about the likelihood of lockdowns. Prof. Ferguson says:

“Clearly, if the consensus is it is highly likely that the NHS is simply going to be overwhelmed, then it will be for the government to decide what [it]wants to do about that, but it’s a difficult situation to be in, of course.”

Speaking about the severity of disease caused by Omicron, he explains that there is “a little hint in the U.K. data that infections are a little bit more likely to be asymptomatic. But we really need to firm up that evidence at the current time.”

Read more about Omicron here.

12/08/2021 12:09 GMT — Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine offers some protection against Omicron, lab study suggests

A series of small experiments with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine has found a drop in protection against the new Omicron variant.

The researchers compared the immune responses of six people who had received the vaccine and six who first developed COVID-19 before receiving the vaccination.

They found that, overall, there was a 41-fold reduction in neutralization against Omicron. However, five of the participants, all of whom had developed COVID-19, maintained “relatively high neutralization [levels] with Omicron.”

The study, which has not been peer-reviewed, suggests that people who have had COVID-19 before this vaccine are likely to be better protected. The researchers expect this to be similar for people who have received a booster dose.

Although the findings are worrisome to an extent, scientists point out that looking solely at antibodies paints an incomplete picture of the body’s immune response to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 —especially against hospitalization or death.

Read more about Omicron here.

Doctor in analysis lab holding sample of new strain of covid Omicron

What to know about eczema

Eczema is a condition in which patches of skin become inflamed, itchy, cracked, and rough. Some types can also cause blisters.

Different types and stages of eczema affect 31.6 million people in the United States, which equals more than 10% of the population.

Many people use the word eczema when referring to atopic dermatitis, which is the most common type. The term atopic refers to a collection of conditions that involve the immune system, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, and hay fever. The word dermatitis refers to inflammation of the skin.

Certain foods, such as nuts and dairy, can trigger symptoms of eczema. Environmental triggers can include smoke, pollen, soaps, and fragrances. Eczema is not contagious.

About a quarter of children in the U.S. have the condition, as well as 10% of African Americans, 13% of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, 13% of Native Americans, and 11% of people who are white.

Some people outgrow the condition, while others will continue to have it throughout adulthood. This article will explain what eczema is and discuss its symptoms, treatments, causes, and types.


The symptoms of atopic dermatitis can vary depending on a person’s age and the condition’s severity and can vary by individual.

People with the condition will often experience periods of time when their symptoms worsen, followed by periods of time when their symptoms will improve or clear up.

The following sections will outline some of the potential differences in symptoms in more detail.

General eczema symptoms

In most cases eczema symptoms are mild. The most common symptoms of atopic dermatitis include:

  • dry, scaly skin
  • skin flushing
  • itching
  • open, crusted, or weeping sores

People with severe eczema may need more intensive treatment to relieve their symptoms. Continuous rubbing and scratching can also lead to skin infections.

Eczema symptoms in People of Color

In People of Color, an eczema rash may appear gray or brown. This can make outbreaks harder to see.

However, People of Color who get eczema may also get dark or light skin patches even after eczema symptoms go away. These can last a long time. Doctors call these patches hyperpigmentation and depigmentation or hypopigmentation.

A dermatologist can evaluate these patches, which may respond to treatments like steroid creams.

Infant eczema symptoms

The following atopic dermatitis symptoms are common in babies under the age of 2:

  • rashes on the scalp and cheeks
  • rashes that bubble up before leaking fluid
  • rashes that can cause extreme itchiness, which may interfere with sleeping

Childhood eczema symptoms

The following atopic dermatitis symptoms are common in children age 2 and above:

  • rashes that appear behind the creases of elbows or knees
  • rashes that appear on the neck, wrists, ankles, and the crease between the buttocks and legs
  • bumpy rashes
  • rashes that can become lighter or darker
  • skin thickening, also known as lichenification, which can then develop into a permanent itch

Most people with the condition develop it before the age of 5 years. An estimated 60% of children will no longer show symptoms by adolescence.

African American and Hispanic children may have more severe eczema than children who are white.

Symptoms in adults

The following atopic dermatitis symptoms are common in adults:

  • rashes that are more scaly than those occurring in children
  • rashes that commonly appear in the creases of the elbows or knees or the nape of the neck
  • rashes that cover much of the body
  • very dry skin on the affected areas
  • rashes that are permanently itchy
  • skin infections

Adults who developed atopic dermatitis as children but no longer experience the condition may still have dry or easily irritated skin, hand eczema, and eczema on the eyelids.

The appearance of skin affected by atopic dermatitis will depend on how much a person scratches and whether the skin is infected. Scratching and rubbing can further irritate the skin, increase inflammation, and make the itching worse.


There is currently no cure for eczema. Treatment for the condition aims to heal the affected skin and prevent flares of symptoms.

Doctors will suggest a treatment plan based on an individual’s age, symptoms, and current state of health.

For some people, eczema goes away over time. For others, however, it is a lifelong condition.

The sections below will list some treatment options.

Home care

There are several things that people with eczema can do to support skin health and alleviate symptoms.

They can try:

  • taking lukewarm baths
  • applying moisturizer within 3 minutes of bathing to “lock in” moisture
  • moisturizing every day
  • wearing cotton and soft fabrics
  • avoiding rough, scratchy fibers and tight fitting clothing
  • using a humidifier in dry or cold weather
  • using a mild soap or a non-soap cleanser when washing
  • taking extra precautions to prevent eczema flares in winter
  • air drying or gently patting the skin dry with a towel, rather than rubbing the skin dry after bathing or taking a shower
  • where possible, avoiding rapid changes of temperature and activities that cause sweating
  • learning and avoiding individual eczema triggers
  • keeping fingernails short to prevent scratching from breaking the skin

People can also try various natural remedies for eczema, including aloe vera, coconut oil, and apple cider vinegar.


Doctors can prescribe several medications to treat the symptoms of eczema, including:

  • Topical corticosteroid creams and ointments: These are anti-inflammatory medications and should relieve the main symptoms of eczema, such as inflammation and itchiness. People can apply them directly to the skin. Some people may benefit from prescription-strength medications.
  • Oral medications: If topical treatments are not effective, a doctor may prescribe oral medications like systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppresants. These are available as injections or oral tablets. People should only use them for short periods of time. Also, it is important to note that the symptoms may worsen upon stopping these drugs if the person is not already taking another medication for the condition.
  • Antibiotics: Doctors prescribe antibiotics if eczema occurs alongside a bacterial skin infection.
  • Antihistamines: These can reduce the risk of nighttime scratching, as they tend to cause drowsiness.
  • Topical calcineurin inhibitors: This drug suppresses the activities of the immune system. It decreases inflammation and helps prevent flares.
  • Barrier repair moisturizers: These reduce water loss and work to repair the skin.
  • Phototherapy: This involves exposure to UVA or UVB waves. This method can treat moderate dermatitis. A doctor will monitor the skin closely throughout the treatment.
  • Injected biologic drugs: These medications block proteins in the immune system to limit immune system response.

Even though the condition itself is not currently curable, each person should consult with a doctor to get a tailored treatment plan.

Even after an area of skin has healed, it is important to keep looking after it, as it may easily become irritated again.


Researchers do not know the definitive cause of eczema, but many health professionals believe that it develops from a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Children are more likely to develop eczema if a parent has it or another atopic condition. If both parents have an atopic condition, the risk is even higher.

Some environmental factors may also bring out the symptoms of eczema. These include:

  • Irritants: These include soaps, detergents, shampoos, disinfectants, juices from fresh fruits, meats, and vegetables.
  • Allergens: Dust mites, pets, pollens, and mold can all lead to eczema. This is known as allergic eczema.
  • Microbes: These include bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, viruses, and certain fungi.
  • Hot and cold temperatures: Very hot and very cold weather, high and low humidity, and perspiration from exercise can bring out eczema.
  • Foods: Dairy products, eggs, nuts and seeds, soy products, and wheat can cause eczema flares.
  • Stress: This is not a direct cause of eczema, but it can make the symptoms worse.
  • Hormones: Females may experience increased eczema symptoms when their hormone levels are changing, such as during pregnancy and at certain points in the menstrual cycle.


There are several types of eczema. Besides atopic dermatitis, other types include:

  • Allergic contact dermatitis: This is a skin reaction that occurs following contact with a substance or allergen that the immune system recognizes as foreign.
  • Dyshidrotic eczema: This refers to irritation of the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. It is characterized by blisters.
  • Neurodermatitis: This leads to scaly patches of skin on the head, forearms, wrists, and lower legs. It occurs due to a localized itch, such as from an insect bite.
  • Discoid eczema: Also known as nummular eczema, this type presents as circular patches of irritated skin that can be crusted, scaly, and itchy.
  • Stasis dermatitis: This refers to skin irritation of the lower leg. It is usually related to circulatory problems.


Eczema is a common inflammatory skin condition. The most common type is called atopic dermatitis. Eczema is most common in children, but the majority of children will grow out of it by the time they reach adolescence.

Eczema can cause discomfort and can vary in severity. It can present differently depending on a person’s age. In people with darker skin tones, the symptoms may be harder to see.

Although there is currently no cure, people can treat and prevent eczema flares using home remedies, moisturizers, medications, and lifestyle changes.

Acute psoriasis on the elbows is an autoimmune incurable dermatological skin disease. Large red, inflamed, flaky rash on the knees. Joints affected by psoriatic arthritis

Is fast food bad for you? All you need to know about its nutrition and impacts

The term “fast food” generally refers to food that people intend to consume quickly, either on- or off-site. There is plenty of well-researched evidence demonstrating the various negative health effects of eating and overeating fast food, in both the short- and long-term.

Many fast food establishments now list the number of calories each item contains. However, this is only part of the consideration of whether it is healthy or not.

Fast food is typically poor in terms of nutrition. According to a 2015 review, fast food tends to contain various substances that are generally unhealthy. It is high in sugar, salt, saturated or trans fats, and many processed preservatives and ingredients. It also lacks some beneficial nutrients.

However, not all fast food has negative impacts, and a person can make an informed choice by researching the nutritional content of particular fast food items. People can find this information on the websites of most major restaurants.

That said, even the more healthy fast food items are generally high in sugar, salt, saturated fats, and trans fats. The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

 notes that the typical person in the United States consumes too much of these food components.

Short-term impacts

Fast food is typically high in sugar, salt, and saturated or trans fats. The body’s reaction to these nutrients results in a range of short-term impacts when a person eats fast food.

Spike in blood sugar

Fast food breaks down quickly, causing a rapid spike in blood sugar because of the refined carbohydrates and added sugar. In turn, this causes an abnormally large insulin surge, resulting in a drop in blood sugar. This can cause people to feel tired. Insulin promotes further hunger within a short time after the meal.

Blood pressure

A small 2016 study found that consuming high levels of salt could immediately impact the proper functioning of a person’s blood vessels. Excess sodium intake also has links to fluid retention.

Increased inflammation

A single serving of fast food could increase inflammation throughout the body. A 2015 study found that one fast food meal high in saturated fat increased airway inflammation in individuals with asthma. This inflammation acts as a trigger for asthma attacks.

Affects nutrient intake

Fast food does not typically contain fresh fruit and vegetables. If an individual eats fast food frequently, they may find it challenging to reach their recommended daily intake of at least 5 servings of fruit and vegetables. They may also have difficulties reaching their ideal fiber intake, which according to the Food and Drug Administration is 28 grams per day.

Binge eating

Fast food is highly palatable, meaning the body breaks it down quickly in the mouth, and it does not need much chewing. Therefore, it activates the reward centers in the brain rapidly.

This combination trains the palate to prefer these highly processed, highly stimulating foods and reduces someone’s desire for whole, fresh foods.

Research from 2018 and other previous studies have suggested a link between fast food consumption and the incidence of food addiction for these low-nutrient items.

A small 2017 study of 15 adults found that a single day of high-fat overeating damaged insulin sensitivity. This can then trigger a cycle of binge eating or binge eating disorders.

Long-term impacts

There is plenty of well-researched evidence showing that regularly eating fast food can harm a person’s health.

A 2015 study identified the sometimes irreparable effects of eating fast food. Such risks include obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and various cardiovascular conditions.

This is because most fast food is high in sugar, salt, saturated fat, trans fats, processed ingredients, and calories. It is also generally low in antioxidants, fiber, and many other nutrients.

Digestive system

Many fast food meals are extremely low in fiber. Doctors associate low-fiber diets with a higher risk of digestive conditions such as constipation and diverticular disease, as well as reductions in healthy gut bacteria.

Immunity and inflammation

A 2019 review examined the effects of a Western diet on a person’s immune system. This diet consists of high amounts of sugar, salt, and saturated fat from only a few sources.

The authors noted that a Western diet could lead to higher inflammation, lower control of infection, higher cancer rates, and a higher risk of allergic and autoinflammatory disease.

Memory and learning

A 2020 paper suggests a link between unbalanced diets high in saturated fat and simple carbohydrates, typical of fast food, and a lower capacity for memory and learning. This sort of diet may also raise the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.


In a 2018 review, the authors established a link between fast food consumption and an increase in asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema.

Heart disease

The FDA suggests that a diet high in salt often increases a person’s blood pressure, making a person more prone to heart attacks, stroke, kidney disease, or heart disease.

The FDA also notes that a diet high in trans fats raises the amount of low-density lipoprotein or “bad” cholesterol and lowers the amount of high-density lipoprotein or “good” cholesterol. This means that a person is more likely to develop heart disease.


The United States Department of Agriculture points out that typical fast food contains a very high number of calories. If a person eats more calories than they burn each day, they gain weight, which may lead to obesity.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), obesity increases a person’s risk of developing a range of serious health conditions.


Another consequence of younger people regularly eating fast food is their unintentional lack of understanding of basic meal preparation, cooking, and healthy eating.

Over time, this perpetuates dependence on fast food, and people may not learn how to prepare healthy, balanced food in the home. Consuming healthy meals can support a person’s long-term health throughout their lifespan.

Mental health impact

Eating lots of fast food could also impact an individual’s mental health and make them more prone to depression and anxiety.

A 2021 study compared data from 322 males and 322 females age 30 or older. They found an association between healthy food such as leafy greens, nuts, and fish and positive mood, while the opposite was true of fast food. In addition, women reported significantly more negative associations with fast food than men.


Fast food tends to be high in salt, sugar, saturated fats, trans fats, calories, and processed preservatives and ingredients. A wealth of well-conducted research has proven the negative health effects of consuming too much of these food components.

In the short term, fast food impacts blood sugar and blood pressure, increases inflammation, and may mean an individual does not eat enough necessary nutrients. In the long term, a diet rich in fast food could lead to issues with digestion, immunity, inflammation, heart health, obesity, and more.

Not all fast food is bad, however. Certain menu items might be lower in these substances than others, while some fast food outlets might focus on providing more healthy options.

To preserve health, a person should try to identify fast food items that contain less salt, fat, sugar, and total carbohydrates, and generally try to limit the amount of fast food they consume.